PAUL BURLISON See Paul's on-site Rockabilly HOF web page.
Scotty Moore grew up in a musical family. His father and three older brothers played country songs on guitar as well as banjo, fiddle, and mandolin. When he was eight years old, Scotty started learning to play guitar. One of his brothers taught him how to play a few chords, but Scotty essentially learned how to play on his own by listening to music on the radio and records.
By the time Scotty was 15, he decided that he wanted to become a professional musician. In 1948, while serving in the armed forces, he formed his first band, and in 1952 in Memphis, Tennessee, he became a member of Doug Poindexter's Starlite Wranglers. With these bands, Moore played country, blues, and pop music in honky tonks. He attributes his experience in honky tonks as the basis for the formative rock'n'roll sounds he developed a couple of years later with Elvis Presley. "Elvis, Bill Black, and myself somehow or another knocked down some doors to release what I've always called honky tonk music," Moore said in his December '92 Guitar Player interview. "All of us were playing basically the same kind of stuff in clubs, though not exactly the way we did it with 'That's All Right Mama' and that stuff. You played whatever was popular, the number one pop song, whatever. If you had a country band you'd play a pop song with country instruments, and vice versa. Everyone just wanted to dance. As long as you made music everyone could dance to, they didn't care."
Moore's primary influences were country/pop guitarists Chet Atkins and Merle Travis. "They were my idols," Moore told Guitar Player. "But I couldn't play with my thumb and fingers or duplicate note-for-note what they were doing. I would take a little phrase - blues, country, whatever - and turn it around to make it fit something I was trying to do." When recording with Presley, Moore generally used his own version of Atkins- or Travis-style picking, using a thumbpick and his fingers. Ironically, Atkins eventually played rhythm behind Moore's lead guitar on several early Presley recording sessions for RCA.
Moore was also influenced by blues guitarists, and cites B.B. King as an early favorite. "I've always said if you can't play a little blues in any kind of song it ain't worth the paper it's written on," says Moore. "I loved Muddy Waters, Lightnin' Hopkins - you name 'em. I didn't even know their names back then." Traces of Moore's blues influences can be heard on his fills and lead breaks, such as on "Mean Woman Blues."
Jazz is another favorite of Moore's, but he admits that he cannot play it. He is particularly fond of Barney Kessel, Tal Farlow, and Johnny Smith's playing.
In general, Moore enjoys any style of music that features guitar. "I was just into everybody," he admits. "As long as he played guitar he was fine with me. I heard something on the radio, and if there was a guitar player on it, I loved it. Even now, whenever I hear guitar I turn it up. And boy, there's some good ones out there these days."Approach and Style
Moore's playing approach can best be described as a hybrid of several different styles, primarily country, blues, and pop. He developed his style as a result of playing various types of music in honky tonks and having to duplicate other instruments' parts due to a shortage of musicians in the band. "I've always said I was forced into my way of playing," he told Guitar Player. "That was the best thing I could find to make it sound like there was more of us than there was. You do the best you can with what you've got to do at the time."
While playing with the Starlite Wranglers, Moore often imitated steel-guitar and horn parts he heard on popular records. His horn-influenced lines later became a considerable element of his playing with Elvis Presley. He would pluck two-, three-, or four-note chord fragments to make his guitar sound like horn-section harmonies. When he was playing with Presley's stripped-down, three-piece band, Moore used a lot of open chords and open strings to fill in the spaces.
Moore favored basic major, minor, 7th, and 6th chords, though he occasionally played 13th and 9th chords as well. Instead of playing full barre chords, he usually played fragments that imply a full chord.
Despite the apparent simplicity of Moore's style, he is actually a complex player who mixes approaches at will. On many Elvis singles, he uses Atkins-style fingerpicking for the rhythm, then immediately switches to single-note lines for fills and leads.
Most of Moore's leads are centered around major or pentatonic minor scales, but he sometimes plays chromatic lines and arpeggios. His Atkins-style leads are especially impressive, with alternating bass lines and melodic structures that make them sound like songs within the song.Techniques
Because of the sparse, three-piece instrumentation on Presley's early recordings, Moore developed a hybrid lead/rhythm playing technique that was loosely based on Atkins- and Travis-picking. Moore uses a thumbpick and three of his fingers, playing alternating bass lines on the lower strings with the thumbpick and plucking melody or chords on the treble strings with his fingers. "I tried to keep a rhythm going and nose on in with stabs here and there," he says. "I just dialed in and was reaching for it."
By playing staccato chords and using slap-back echo, Moore turned simple rhythms into complex-sounding patterns. A prime example of this technique can be heard on "Mystery Train," where he simply alternates an open E and open A chord plucked with his fingers between a steady, lower, open E-string pattern that he strikes with the thumbpick.
Sometimes, Moore played with a flatpick instead of a thumbpick and fingers. On a few of the earliest Presley songs, such as "Blue Moon Of Kentucky" and "Harbor Lights," Moore is probably playing with a flatpick. He may have also grabbed the thumbpick between his thumb and forefinger, clutching it like a flatpick.
For his lead breaks, Moore often used a few fancy left-hand techniques. For example, he plays a stunning succession of double-stop triplet pull-offs on the first lead break on "Shake, Rattle, And Roll." He also frequently used slides and slurs for leads and rhythms. Because of the heavy gauge strings that he used on his guitars, Moore did not bend strings very often.THE HARDWARE Guitars, Strings, and Picks
Moore's first guitar was a Kalamazoo flat-top acoustic that was probably a hand-me-down from one of his brothers. He traded this for a Sears Silvertone Gene Autry guitar that his brother owned while the same brother was serving in the Navy in World War II. When he was 15, Moore saved the money that he made growing cotton to buy himself a Gibson flat-top acoustic.
Moore recalls playing a variety of inexpensive Japanese electric guitars during the early '50s. By the time he became a member of Doug Poindexter's Starlite Wranglers in 1952, he was playing a Fender Esquire. He says that he did not like the small body, however, and he soon abandoned the Esquire in favor of the guitar that he later used on the earliest Elvis Presley recording sessions, a gold-finished Gibson ES-295 archtop hollowbody electric.
About a year after making his first recording with Presley, Moore acquired a Gibson L-5 archtop hollowbody electric. He used this for several years until he got himself a Gibson Super 400, which, like the previous two guitars, is also a hollowbody archtop electric. Moore still owns and plays the blonde Super 400 that he acquired in the '50s while playing with Elvis. In the early '60s, he bought a sunburst Super 400 with a sharp "Florentine" cutaway. This is the guitar that he used for the Elvis "Comeback" television special.
One of Moore's most recent guitar acquisitions is a Gibson Country Gentleman that was given to him by Chet Atkins. "Chet called and asked if I needed a guitar, recalls Moore. "I said 'No, I'm not playing. I don't really need one.' A few months went by and he showed up at my office and brought this guitar in. Chet's a jewel."
Moore plays with a thumbpick. From the '50s through the '70s, he strung his guitars with Gretsch Chet Atkins heavy-gauge strings.Amplifiers, Effects, and Devices
During the early '50s, while he was playing with Doug Poindexter and the Starlite Wranglers, Moore used a tweed-covered, "TV-front" Fender Bassman amplifier. He probably used this same amp on his first recordings with Elvis Presley.
To duplicate the slapback tape-echo effects that were created in the studio, Moore purchased an Echo-Sonic amplifier with a built-in echo unit for use onstage. The amp was made by Ray Butts of Cairo, Illinois. Butts' amps were also used by Chet Atkins, Roy Orbison, and Carl Perkins. "I heard Chet using it on a couple of records and started investigating how he got that sound," recalls Moore. "When I found out it was Ray's amp, I drove up to Cairo, Illinois, to get him to build me one. Ray built only about five or six of those amps." Moore first used the Echo-Sonic on "Mystery Train," recorded on July 11, 1955.
Besides the built-in echo in the Echo-Sonic amp, the only other effect that Moore used on his guitar was tape echo that was created in the studio with a pair of tape recorders.
Gallup started playing guitar when he was eight years old. Two of his uncles were musicians - one played fiddle and the other played banjo. "He used to sit and watch them play when he was just a little guy," recalls Gallup's widow, Doris. Although Cliff probably received a few playing tips from his uncles, he was mainly a self-taught player who learned by listening to records, the radio, and other musicians. "Everything he played was strictly by ear," says Doris. "He didn't read music. He didn't know one note from another when it comes to reading it on paper. All he had to do was listen to a song one time and he had it in his mind."
Gallup started playing electric guitar when he was 12. Shortly thereafter, he started playing with bands. He practiced and giggled often. When he met Gene Vincent, Gallup was playing in the Virginians, which was the staff band at radio station WCMS in Norfolk, Virginia. Gallup was only 26, but he was already quite an experienced musician. This may explain why his chops were so advanced for a relatively young player.
There weren't very many rock'n'roll guitarists around in the mid-'50s to imitate, so Gallup developed a style of his own. His style was primarily influenced by country and pop players, such as Chet Atkins and Les Paul. He also drew inspiration from mainstream jazz guitarists and the music of Elvis Presley and Carl Perkins. "I kind of thought Les Paul was the going thing in my younger years," he told Dan Forte in a Guitar Player interview. "I used to listen to a lot of Atkins stuff when he first started. I played a little bit of everything, I guess."
After he quit touring and recording with Vincent, Gallup played with local bands and worked on the staff of a local radio station, where he backed up several country artists and recorded commercials. "He played a lot of gospel music," Doris Gallup comments about Cliff's later years. "All kind of people used to call him up and beg him to teach them chords. He would play for anybody who came over and asked him to play. People would call him up and ask him to sit in. He would play with them and he wouldn't charge them anything. A lot of times he played seven nights a week."Approach and Style
Gallup's style is best described as a combination of country and jazz with a lot of rock'n'roll energy. Gallup frequently utilized jazzy single-note lines in his rhythm work and solos. Sometimes he played sax-like motifs that complemented Vincent's vocals. Like many jazz players, Gallup utilized octave jumps and chromatic lines. His first solo on "Race With The Devil" is a fine example of these approaches.
Gallup also liked to play double stops. On "Cruisin'" he played a jazzy, slurred G, C9, D7 double-stop pattern on the second and third strings. For the solo, he employed a dissonant, minor-second double stop lick that was often played by country guitarists.
Unlike most early rock'n'roll guitarists who usually played only major, minor, and seventh chords, Gallup liked to use jazz-chord voicings. The6add9 chord was one of his favorites, and he would often use it to end songs. He also liked to conclude songs with a major 7 chord.
Gallup often relied on Travis- or Atkins-style picking, a style that was common in country music during the mid-'50s. It involves simultaneously playing a bass line on the bottom three strings while plucking out melodies on the upper three strings. A good example of this style can be heard on Vincent's's recording of "Be-Bop-A-Lula" and Gallup's solo on "Red Bluejeans And A Ponytail."
According to Gallup, most of the solos that he recorded with Gene Vincent were created spontaneously in the studio. On early Gene Vincent sessions, producer Ken Nelson had hired Nashville studio guitarists Grady Martin and Hank "Sugarfoot" Garland to back up Vincent in case the Blue Caps didn't work out. However, after hearing Gallup flawlessly execute his first take for "Race With The Devil," Nelson realized that the backup musicians weren't necessary.Techniques
Much of the intricacy of Gallup's flashy playing style can be attributed to his right-handed technique. He used a combination of a flatpick and fingerpicks, holding the flatpick between his thumb and forefinger and wearing the fingerpicks on his second and third fingers. He also used a hybrid of Atkins- or Travis-style picking and traditional flatpicking techniques. His use of the flatpick allowed Gallup to execute lightning-fast runs that would be impossible or very difficult to play with a thumbpick in the manner that they were used by most Travis-picking stylists. Gallup utilized each of his right-hand fingers, resting his little finger on his bigsby vibrato bar.
Gallup's use of the vibrato bar was especially innovative for his time. Like most players, he used the bar to apply vibrato to chords, but he often would depress the bar before striking a note and then raise the note to pitch, similar to pedal-steel playing techniques. An example of this can be heard in the middle of the first solo on Bluejean Bop."
Perhaps a direct result of his Les Paul influences, Gallup used hammer-ons and pull-offs to increase his playing speed. Many of his solos - particularly those on "Race With The Devil" and "Cruisin'" - feature fast pulled-off triplet figures. Gallup made effective use of raked and slurred grace notes that gave his leads a distinctive, jazz-like sophistication. Sometimes he would slide up and down the strings as much as an octave. Gallup bent notes only occasionally, and he never bent them more than a whole step, which was probably as much due to the heavy-gauge strings he used as to his non-blues background.THE HARDWARE
Guitars, Strings, and Picks
Details about Gallup's first guitar are unknown. Although Gallup himself was not certain, he said that he obtained his first electric guitar from the Sears & Roebuck catalog sometime in the early '40s.
When Gallup joined Gene Vincent and his Blue Caps in 1956, he acquired a brand-new Gretsch Duo-Jet with a black finish, and fitted with single-coil DeArmond pickups, and a fixed-arm Bigsby vibrato unit. This is the guitar that Gallup used on all of his recordings with Vincent. Although many rumors have since circulated about the Duo-Jet being stolen at one of Vincent's shows, Doris Gallup still owns the guitar.
After quitting Vincent's band, Gallup bought a hollowbody, double-cutaway Gretsch Country Gentleman fitted with humbucking Filtertron pickups. This is the guitar that he used for the rest of his playing career. He also owned a Gibson Everly Brothers acoustic that he set up with nylon strings.
Gallup wore two metal National fingerpicks on his second and third right-hand fingers, and held a large, thin triangular flatpick between his thumb and forefinger. His Duo-Jet was strung with medium-gauge flat-wound strings.Amplifiers, Effects, and Devices
Although the guitars that Gallup used are well-documented in a handful of photos, details about which amplifiers he used are not as well known. In a Guitar Player interview, Gallup mentioned that he used an amp that belonged to Grady Martin when recording at Owen Bradley's studio in Nashville. Although he was not certain, Gallup thought that the amp was a Standel. This is highly likely, since Martin did use a Standel amp at this time, and Standel amps were very popular with country-music studio guitarists. This amp probably had a single 15-inch speaker.
For live performance, Gallup used a tweed-covered Fender amp, most likely a Twin. This was confirmed in a recent interview with Doris Gallup, who says that she gave the amplifier to Cliff's best friend after he passed away.
On the early Gene Vincent records, Gallup's guitar was often processed with reverb and slapback echo. Since neither of these effects were available as amplifier features or portable units at that time, the effects were produced by expensive pieces of studio gear and special recording techniques. In the late 50's, Gallup built his first two echo units from old tape recorders. These echo units were not used on any Vincent recordings.
Duane started playing guitar at the age of five, when he was taught a few basic chords by his father. One of the first tunes Duane learned to play was "Wildwood Flower." While growing up in New York, he listened to country music that was broadcast by local radio stations, as well as stations as far away as West Virginia, Cincinnati, and Nashville. His first influences were singing cowboys Roy Rogers and Gene Autry, who played guitar in their movies.
When Eddy was a teenager, he formed a country band that played country hits and rockabilly songs. His early influences include Chet Atkins, Merle Travis, Grady Martin, Les Paul, and steel-guitarist Jerry Byrd. In the mid-'50s, he developed a taste for jazz and enjoyed the playing of Barney Kessel, Howard Roberts, and Django Reinhardt. Later he became interested in the blues, with B.B. King becoming a personal favorite, and in the late '50s he recorded a version of King's "Three-30-Blues". He also had several non-guitar influences, including trumpet player Louis Armstrong.
Duane never had any formal music instruction and has never learned to read music, but when he was 17 he took lessons from Jimmy Wyble for a brief period. Al Casey, a member of Eddy's band since the mid-'50s, also showed Duane how to play a variety of licks. Eddy's producer, Lee Hazelwood, gave him the idea to play melodies on the guitar's bass strings. Duane practiced the style for a few months before he recorded his first instrumental hits.
Approach and Style
Most of Eddy's early songs were simple riffs played over a standard I-IV-V chord progression. He usually picked single-note lines for the melodies and played driving double-stop rhythms. Many of his biggest hits, such as "Rebel Rouser" and "Detour", were simple major scale-based melodies played on the guitar's bottom four strings. This approach was a suggestion of Eddy's producer Lee Hazelwood, and Eddy felt that the low-string melodies recorded better than melodies played higher on the guitar. "Also, I wanted to do something different," he told Dan Forte in a 1984 Guitar Player interview. "Sometimes it's-harder to do the simple things than it is to do the tricky stuff."
As his career progressed, this style became Eddy's predominant approach to playing the guitar. He also liked to use pentatonic minor scales, most notably on his cover version of B.B. King's "Three-30-Blues." Most of the time he played in "open" position, below the fifth fret and making liberal use of open strings.
To add variety to the melodies, Eddy Often modulated up or down in pitch on subsequent verses. A good example of this can be heard on "Rebel Rouser," which starts in F, modulates up a half-step to F#, modulates up another half-step to G, and ends in G#.
Eddy's biggest deviation from his usual approach appears on the song "Trambone." For this recording, he imitated the playing style of Chet Atkins, fingerpicking the melody while playing an alternating bass line on the lower strings with a thumbpick. The song also features brief chord melody interludes unlike anything Eddy ever recorded before.
Duane's playing style is sparse and uncomplicated. He rarely improvised leads or fills, feeling that space is more effective in getting a listener's attention than flashy playing. "On 'You Are My Sunshine' I was so tempted to put in some fills and do some things on my solo," he explained to Guitar Player. "I held myself back because sometimes leaving a hole is more effective than filling it."Techniques
Much of Eddy's distinctive tone can be attributed to his right-hand technique. He usually picked between the pickups or near the neck, preferring the round tone to the more percussive tone of picking near the bridge. He used the guitar's bridge pickup on the majority of his songs, although he occasionally also used both pickups at once. He likes to use the neck pickup when he's playing blues or in the guitar's high register.
Eddy's vibrato-bar technique was another integral part of his distinctive sound. He would use the bar to execute exaggerated bends or to add subtle vibrato to chords. His control of pitch was quite accurate, and he frequently would raise a note up to pitch from a whole-step below by depressing the bar before he hit the string.
Chuck was exposed to music at an early age. When he was growing up in St. Louis, Missouri, the local church choir - the Antioch Baptist Church choir - used to practice in his parents' home. Later, Chuck started singing in that same choir, He got his first taste of success as a performer when he sang Jay McShann's "Confessin' The Blues" at a concert arranged by Sumner High School's class of '41. "I realized as I was performing that the audience will respond if you give them what they want," he reminisced in his autobiography.
Berry decided to learn to play guitar while he was attending high school. His favorite music at this time was boogie woogie, blues, and swing. The style that he developed later as a recording artist for Chess records is largely an amalgamation of these styles. One of his first instructional books was Nick Manoloff's Guitar Book Of Chords. Later, he studied music theory and harmony at Ludwig's Music in St. Louis.
He was influenced by several blues guitarists, including Muddy Waters, Elmore James, and Tampa Red. He also enjoyed the rhythm-and-blues styles of T-Bone Walker, Lonnie Johnson, and Carl Hogan with Louis Jordan's Tympany Five, as well as Charlie Christian and Django Reinhardt's jazz playing. (A local jazz musician, guitarist, Ira Harris, showed Chuck how to play a few jazz licks in the style of Christian.) Hogan's rhythm playing was especially influential on Chuck. "He stuck to the I-IV-V, played mainly quarters and eights, and played right on the beat," Berry told Tom Wheeler in the March 1988 issue of Guitar Player. Berry was also influenced by saxophone players, citing Illinois Jacquet as one of his favorites.
When Berry started playing in clubs, he learned a variety of material to get and keep jobs. The material ranged from blues to pop, such as Harry Belafonte's "Banana Boat Song" and Nat King Cole tunes, to country songs, including "Mountain Dew" and Hank Williams' "Jambalaya." The country influence was very evident on Berry's first single, "Maybellene," as well as on several songs where he played pedal steel.Approach and Style
Although Chuck Berry once said that he did not recognize any style of his own, most music historians agree that his guitar style was one of the most influential factors that defined the sound of early rock music. Berry's music mixed elements of R&B with country, resulting in what eventually came to be known as rock'n'roll. His music encompassed many styles - including blues, swing, jazz, and calypso - but it always bore his indistinguishable personality.
The most important aspect of Berry's style is his rhythmic sophistication. Most of his rhythms are syncopated and based on boogie-woogie patterns that were popular during the early '50s. Berry notes that this was a result of his big-band swing influences. His rhythms are often a cross between 4/4 time, eighth notes, downstroke shuffles, and a straight eighth-note rock feel. He likes to change the accents of a shuffle to make the groove swing more. Another common trait of Berry's rhythms is a root-to-fifth bass pattern, which is reminiscent of early country music.
Berry's songs often start with a signature lick, a short solo, or an inventive sound effect, such as his use of an augmented chord to imitate a school bell in "School Days" or the fourth interval he plays on "Maybellene" to mimic a car horn. His solos incorporate liberal use of double-stops and bent notes. One of his most common licks, where a note is bent up a whole step, followed by the same note played on an adjacent string, is similar to a lick that was often played by T-Bone Walker.
Many of Berry's early compositions were influenced by the blues, such as "No Money Down," which is reminiscent of Muddy Waters' "Hoochie Coochie Man." But shortly thereafter his chord progressions deviated slightly from traditional blues progressions and began to display elements of Berry's emerging stylistic variations. For example, instead of playing a V-IV-I change over a verse, he preferred to play V-V-I.
Perhaps because Chuck often plays with pianists (he was heavily influenced by his piano player, Johnnie Johnson), many of his songs are performed in keys such as Bb and Eb, whereas most guitarists prefer to play in A or E. Because Chuck primarily uses barre chords and pentatonic box patterns, he does not rely on open strings as much as those guitarists who usually play in A or E.Techniques
To fully comprehend Berry's rhythm playing, a guitarist should concentrate on right-hand technique as much as left-hand fingering. To achieve a staccato sound, Berry uses a combination of right-hand muting (resting the heel of his palm against the guitar's bridge), and downstrokes. On faster rhythms, such as the intro to "School Days," he uses a combination of upstrokes and downstrokes. He holds his flatpick between his left-hand thumb and forefinger, picking in the area just above the bridge pickup.
Berry's left-hand rhythm technique incorporates liberal use of double-stops and barre chords. He often uses his left-hand little finger to play alternating bass patterns on the lower strings. These bass patterns have become a signature to Berry's rhythm style.
In addition to bending notes, Berry uses slides and slurs liberally. Many of his songs and solos start with a pattern of descending double-stops, where he slurs the chord downward as he moves to the next one. He also tends to slowly bend and release notes several times after picking them, making them sound more like two separate notes than like vibrato. Another favorite technique of his is to utilize hammer-ons and pull-offs sparingly to accent or anticipate a chord.
Guitars, Strings, and Picks
Berry's first guitar was a Kay electric guitar that was sold to him for $30 by Joe Sherman, an R&B performer in St. Louis. Chuck is pictured with an Epiphone archtop electric in early Chess publicity photos, but he claims that he never recorded with that guitar. Prior to his first recording session for Chess, Chuck purchased a blonde Gibson ES-350T archtop electric with two P-90 single-coil pickups from Ludwig's Music in St. Louis. This is the guitar that Berry is seen with in most of his early promotional photos, and it is also the guitar that he used on most of his legendary mid-'50s recordings. Sometime around 1957, he purchased a similar ES-350T, but this guitar was equipped with two humbucking pickups instead of the single-coils. Berry recollects that this guitar was used on most of the hits that he recorded during the late '50s. He later gave this guitar to his friend, Joe Edwards, and it is now on display at Edwards' restaurant, Blueberry Hill, in St. Louis, Missouri.
Although Berry is seen performing with a Gretsch Chet Atkins 6120 in the movie Rock, Rock, Rock, he admits that the guitar was just a prop. He did own a hollowbody Gretsch for a while, but he has expressed a dislike for the guitar's heavier weight compared to his Gibsons. Apparently, he did not use it for live performance or for any significant recordings.
In the '60s, Chuck started playing a Gibson ES-355 semi-hollow electric fitted with two humbucking pickups and a vibrola tailpiece. Because the ES-355's double cutaways provide better access to the upper frets than his early Gibsons, this style of guitar is Chuck's favorite. He still performs with this model today. He also owns a Gibson Lucille model with no f-holes, which is based after B.B. King's ES-355.
For a brief period in the mid '50's, when Chuck was performing at the Cosmopolitan Club in St. Louis, he used a black Gibson Les Paul Custom solidbody. "What made me get the Les Paul was the way it felt," Berry told Tom Wheeler in a March '88 interview for Guitar Player. "It had these flat frets, and it was comfortable and seemed to never wear out and it stayed in tune." This was the only time that Berry played a solidbody guitar.
On several of his early singles, such as "Blues For Hawaiians," "Deep Feeling," and "Low Feeling," Berry played a late '30s Gibson Electraharp pedal steel.
Above information courtesy of Chris Gill of Guitar Player magazine.